Part 4 Research Point [Level 1, Unit 1]

I have collected many newspapers, magazines, etc. so far always whenever I found some designs in them interesting to study through observation.

For this research, I’m presenting three different news articles from some of them as follows for studying the use of type –

Example 1 :


The caption or the headline of the article is presented in bold, sans serif typeface with elongated or vertically stretched appearance, in tight kerning and less leading as well as low tracking values, with just one word highlighted in green. Overall, the caption is not much legible easily. The number of words is bit much more for a caption than it should be in general. The use of three photographs [1 large sized and other two of almost same size] arranged in a balanced manner along with introducing paragraph as well as the main body copy in one whole column is what it makes extremely complicated in appearance overall. The font used for the caption is used for the introduction paragraph but without bold weight. A typeface similar to following fonts is used for the column of body copy –

  1. Bell Mt
  2. Century
  3. Times New Roman
  4. Yu Mincho Demibold

Among these ‘Yu Mincho Demibold’ seems to be a closer match, with beautiful combination of varied width [thick and thin] of strokes and the terminals.

body copy text 1.1

The gutters of the column and photographs are equidistant. Use of drop caps is not much of significance though.

Example 2 :


The use of typeface ‘Arial’ [narrow, regular] for introduction paragraph is seen. The caption or headline of the article is presented in bold, sans serif typeface with elongated or vertically stretched appearance, in tight kerning and less leading as well as low tracking values. The photograph is serving the purpose of catching attention of viewers who give it a quick glance or even to the readers of the article by making it appear as an attractive background of the caption of the article. The highlighted introduction paragraph is written in the same typeface as that used for the caption, but with no bold weight. The name of the author is written in a bold sans serif font just below the caption. Use of drop caps at the beginning of the column is significant due to the use of five lines. The equidistant gutters between the columns and most likely use of the beautiful serif typeface ‘Century’ is seen for the body copy is making overall text columns legible with one slightly lengthy column as compared to the other two columns. Thus, except the caption, the text overall doesn’t appear illegible.

Example 3 :


The use of the medieval gothic font ‘Cloister Black’ for the name of the newspaper ‘The Hindustan Times’ written using the centre alignment above the editorial article, combined with typeface ‘Arial’ [uppercase, regular] is catching the attention. The use of regular weight for the typeface ‘Arial’ for the headline of the article makes it insignificant in appearance. The sub heading is written using a serif typeface similar to ‘Times New Roman’ or ‘Century’. The whole text is placed in one whole column, yet it doesn’t look bulky with only three paragraphs with indents on each beginning line. A highlighted drop cap of five lines is providing a beautiful visual contrast to the overall text. The name of the column or editorial ‘ourtake’ is wrap text on right side of the overall text, with the two words combined together, yet differentiated with use of colours like Cyan and Black. It is placed strategically at the end of the first paragraph. The text of the article is reflecting sincerity in appearance and is very legible overall.


Part 4 Research : Vernacular Typography [Level 1 Unit 1]

‘Vernacular’ means the regional language or local dialect spoken by the native people or of a country or region. Vernacular typography is type design in common use. It is developed to suit the particular needs of a certain location or culture, or developed around a particular activity or within a group of people.

The vernacular typography is often created by untrained designers or hand-lettering artists, on various surfaces, for example metals like iron, steel, fibre, plastic, glass, wood, etc., some of which have different textures as well, giving the typography very unique, attractive appearance, by use of vibrant colours, different symbols, human figures, motifs, artistically drawn animals, numbers, abbreviations of words in vernacular language or local dialect.

Vernacular typography examples that I have studied are from shop-name-boards / signboards [some are hand-painted, hand-lettered while some are printed, engraved or embossed or even made from neon lights] and typography on cars or trucks. Modt of these are written in my mother-tongue regional language Marathi, our national language Hindi and also some are written in English. Some have been so crude that there can be seen some grammatical mistakes but it doesn’t hamper the beauty of the artworks. Instead, it has increased the charm.

Fruit Juice Kiosk :

Wonderful use of vibrant colours, perspective, three dimensional lettering in Marathi / Hindi and English, shapes of fruits altogether makes it visually attractive and tempting.


Cardboard box :

Car :

Signboards, Name-boards and Hoardings :
The style of logo of the brand ‘Godrej’ isn’t disturbed but yet arranged in a festive look on the hoarding for an ad of discount scheme of a furniture shop. The text is written in simple and sans serif fonts with varying weights (regular and thin) is combined with bold serif font in Marathi.

The hoarding next to it is of a supermarket named ‘Central Bazaar’ written in Marathi along with its logo consisting typography and line artwork of a trolley to carry the purchased goods.


The logo of a locally famous watch-repairing shop is combination of serif font and a shape of wrist watch. The colour combination is simple black and red, yet very striking.


The name of the ladies garment shop ‘Maitrin’ (मैत्रिण – meaning : a female friend) is written in a calligraphic font in Marathi. The use of maroon for background with white coloured text makes it perfectly balanced in the handwritten calligraphy appearance overall.


The ad of a sale and festive offer for the clothes shop is attractive due to the thin script font used for the name of the Indian festival ‘Dipawali’ written in Marathi paired with bold serif font written on a dark, gradient filled background surrounded by a vector ornamental frame. The contrast colours make it visually attractive.


The simple yet attractive sans serif font for the name ‘City Pride Anand’ in white colour is used for a cinema theatre in Marathi with just an artistic dab underneath on a red background, make it appear beautiful and glamorous. The rounded letters make it easy to read.


The name ‘Cottonking’ of shop selling a brand of cotton clothes, especially gents shirts is written in English in lowercase using a font that is sans serif, with the leg of the letter ‘k’ extended belpw the baseline and ‘g’ is double storey. The distance between the x-height and the ascender line is less than usual.


The icecream and dessert shop ‘Moods of Deserts’ is colourful, written in a fancy, display font on black background with slanting complimentary text below it in white, making it appear tempting to have a scoop or two of an icecream.


The name of the mini market for grocery supplies – ‘GroMart’ – is written in an unusual way in English, in uppercase serif font with symmetrical terminals of serifs on green background. The letter ‘O’ is substituted with a pair of concentric circular shape divided in sections making it unique, kinetic and depicting movement or progression. The logo is made out of the double storey ‘g’ shaped as a trolley to carry the purchased goods. The name ‘GroMart’ is written below also in Marathi.


The vertical alignment of the text of name of the Hotel ‘Bahar’ in Marathi and English in a fancy, display font on dark green background is seen.


The white calligraphic text of obituary board on black background with lit up lamps for paying the respects is paired with sans serif font is arousing emotional response. Black colour depicts the colour of mourning.


I personally love travelling since I was a child and always fascinated to observe the surroundings. From this observation, I have noted a wonderful trend that can be seen in India is typographical artworks on the trucks and lorries, tankers, etc. It is kind of retro in appearance overall. It can be itself one deep subject of research if considered. There are typographical artworks on the back of the trucks, especially regarding a phrase ‘Horn Ok Please’ / ‘Horn Please’ to warn the vehicles behind while travelling on roads and highways, to blow the horn if they wish to overtake as it’s absolutely fine (or Ok) to blow the horn and there is no ban to sound the horn in India. 

Some of such typographical artworks have an emotional, sentimental appeal to warn people about rash driving by showing a women / children waiting at home for them OR to express their gratitude towards their own family members like mother or father, for all the progress they have made due to their parents OR even writing the names of the children in the family. It reflects the Indian culture and family values. Funny statements, slogans, etc. are written.


Part 4 Research Point : Ligatures, Characters, etc. [Level1, Unit 1]

Ligatures are characters in which two or sometimes more than two letters are combined to make printing easier as well as to make the text visually persistent while reading. There can be different types of ligatures, for example standard, discretionary, historic ligatures, etc.

I was fascinated by the curiosity about the ligatures of Serif fonts for ex.

Times New Roman –

Ligatures (Times New Roman)

Sans serif fonts for ex. Arial –

Ligatures and special characters (Arial)

I felt to explore more about some display fonts as well and selected a font named ‘MEgapolis Extra’ and noted down the keystrokes for some stunning ligatures and characters –


Practically speaking, as I’m a working designer, to match the fonts from innumerous, infinite fonts and typeface families all over the world, is like finding a needle in haystack. But, still, I have studied typefaces of a digital book ‘Creating Luminous Watercolour Landscapes’ using . I used website and for the main typefaces for headlines and body text –

Font identification page of ebook 1

Font identification page of ebook 2

For the body text, the font used is most probably Photina MT Std :

font identification 2

For the headline text

font identification 3

the font used is similar to the following fonts :

Font identification 4

I also have studied some objects with text on them, for example, my diary :

my diary

The word ‘Attitude’ is script font with handwritten appearance while the remaining text is thin, uppercase sans serif font, similar to font Arial.

A movie CD cover :


The title ‘Bhaag Milkha Bhaag’ is written in uppercase, sans serif, bold font. The kerning is tight and there is no leading. The vertical stretched look makes it all different in appearance. The ‘G’ is without spur.

The box of printing-papers :


The word ‘Kodak’ is in sans serif font, written in an unique retro style, similar to Bauhaus font. Other remaining text is simple sans serif. the lowercase ‘a’ and ‘g’ is double-storey while uppercase ‘G’ has no spur/tail.

The book cover :


The use of calligraphic text / strokes in circular arrangement in Arabic script is extremely attractive and intriguing. The title and the name of the author is written in uppercase thin serif font, similar to the fonts like Times New Roman or  Cloister with varying weights like regular and bold respectively. The description is written in a calligraphic font.


Part 4 Research [Level 1, Unit 1]

I have been interested in learning typography and also I wish to learn to create fonts. I came to know about many designers, typographers, calligraphers, etc. but noticed that there were many names of male designers, typographers or calligraphers and strangely there were very rarely or very few female names. This roused my curiosity about first female typographers and printers and their work in the past.

Hence, I thought to undertake a research and found some stunning and interesting information –

There was a period when there were prejudices about capabilities of women and were considered inferior. They weren’t given the due credits for their work, not even were acknowledged for their work. Some women preferred to work with nicknames sounding like male names or simply remained anonymous by intention or forcefully by other, due to such unfavourable conditions. So, sometimes it was bit tough to recognize whether the work was done by a women artist or not.

Women had fewer career opportunities and also had been exempted from getting good education and not even allowed to matriculate or graduate. Even the universities like Oxford didn’t allow women to even get admission till 1920. Even at Bauhaus art school in Germany, women were permitted to learn weaving or textile design but not other arts like graphic design or typography. Condition wasn’t much different throughout all the continents of the world. The issue of treating women artists, designers, typographers, etc. as inferior was universal, almost in all religions and classes, with very rare exceptions.

Prior to the invention of printing process in 15th century, women were involved in the process of production of manuscripts as well as some women worked as scribes, copyists for imitating handwritten documents, arts and music while some women served as patrons and supporters. Wives of craftsmen and nuns were allowed to assist or work in printing firms to typeset or aid the guilds of artists, typesetters, publishers, etc.

For example :

  1. Dominican nuns were printing books during the period between 1476 to 1484.
  2. There is a logbook by a convent press belonging to 8th century  which contains the record of female compositor, nun who had typeset a folio edition of a literary work by an Italian poet.
  3. Estellina Conat (wife of a physician and printer Abraham Conat) was involved in the process of typesetting of a Hebrew book, a small octavo edition of ‘Behinat Olam’. It has a colophon (a publisher’s emblem / imprint usually on the title page of the book, containing the brief information) which mentions Estellina’s contribution.

Anna Rugerin :

Anna’s mother Barbara Traut Schonsperger had remarried to Johann Bamler, a printer Augsburg, thus marking the beginning of an extensive engagement of family in the book-printing business.

After the death of her husband Thomas Ruger, Anna took full control of her print shop as an owner and operator, by having a business-oriented family history. The first woman to add her name in a colophon as a printer in a printed book was Anna Rugerin. She had published two folio editions of ‘Sachsenspiegel Landrecht’ by Eike Von Repgow in summer, June 1984 at Augsburg [Southern Germany]. She was assisted by her brother Johann Schonsperger.

Colophon containing Anna Rugerin’s name (Image courtesy of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)

Anna Rugerin colophon

I had found the translation of the colophon as follows :

anna rugerin colophon translation

The opening page of ‘Formulae and Duetsch Rhetorica’ contains the mention of Anna Rugerin (Image courtesy of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) –


Anna Rugerin and Johann Schonsperger used gothic type [Type 1:120G] –


Later, in 16th century, situations started progressing and more than hundreds of women were becoming a part of printing and designing processes, including bookmakers, writers / scribes, editors, type-designers, typographers, printers, owners of printing-firms.


Part 3 Research Point [Level 1 Unit 1]

Being a self-studied designer, I have  habit of collecting many samples of various designs (printed and digital) for example ads, packaging, labels, graphics, illustrations, flyers, posters, logos, book covers, sketches, paintings, drawings, etc. These collections have helped me to overcome artist’s block at times and also to keep the spark of creativity alive in me.

I have found innumerous styles and types that attract me. These collections have motivated me to improve my style of design.

I have realized that I have collected various types of designs by various designers, known and unknown. I’m interested in the designs that use illustrations, graphics, typography and vibrant as well as minimal colour palettes.

Through observations so far, I have understood that the hierarchy and layout should be balanced to attract the attention of viewers and also to increase the possibility of sell of the product by lucrative designs. The utility and innovative aspects are extremely important in the design. The designs should be memorable and transcend beyond the trends and classics.

The visual language is easy to understand and dominant throughout, represented through the following designs from my visual diary :


The package design for a spices powder product is made up of limited colour palette. The warm colour scheme used on white background and an apt photograph of the spices has made the design perfect for print. The well-balanced layout makes the visual language easier to understand.



The translucent design with uniform design on all bottles creates an illusion of fruits hanging up on the level of drink. The vertical alignment of the text is suitable. Uniqueness of such designs is the key factor to appeal the potential buyers, making them feel the temptation to try. This can be said as the success of visual dynamics resented in this design.


The simple shape of the bottle, limited colours,  and the simple layout of the design perfectly pair together, thus making it visually appealing. The simple sans serif font used for text makes it legible, by making the eyesight focus on only important text at the first glance.


The funky, graffiti style fonts, warm colours along with contrasting colours on the labels is visually attractive. Some text on some labels is not much legible though. The strong appeal of the visual dynamics of all the designs attracts the viewers.



The simple, minimal style of the package for a stylus is extremely user-friendly too. The window provides a sneak peak of the stylus inside. The limited colour palette, simple sans serif font along with logo is visually interesting overall and looks extremely professional. The utility is given importance as well.

The unique, intelligently-designed package design has a great utility value also. The attractive scheme of only limited colours and the die-cut petal shapes and cylindrical shapes become not just windows but also the holders of tangerines / oranges. Use of illustration and minimum text is seen. Overall, the visual dynamics is completely successful in catching the attention of viewers, buyers too.


The package design for a food-catering service is manifesting the warm colour scheme that stimulates appetite. The different style of box-design makes it visually appealing. The placement of logo at the centre balances the visual dynamics throughout the design layout.


The vibrant red background and the cute illustration of a Japanese girl wearing a Kimono and holding an umbrella is wonderfully reaching out to the viewers. It reflects the culture of Japan. The use of floral pattern represents the beauty. The use of light green colour adds a contrast.



The cute illustration created with sot lines, pale colours along with contrasts on the background of gray colour, is visualy appealing.


The gloomy ambience and mood is represented through the style of illustration and the pale colours. There is no focus on details in illustration, purposefully.



The background pale colour with pattern of polka dots, the colours overall, silhouette and floral illustrations reflects the retro style. Use of less text using the sans serif font, placement of logo is visually appealing.



The greeting card for the festival in India is designed using retro-styled illustration and repeated colours is inimalistic yet very attractive. The simple serif font is used for text.



The use of floral illustration and single colour on pale background makes this handlettered artwork reflect positive energy through the visuals.



The use of soft and flowing line strokes reflects the cuteness and tenderness of the baby through this illustration. It perfectly touhes the heart of the viewers. The use of facial expressions and gestures in this character design is wonderfully appealing.



The vibrantly colordul, cute, illustration is extremely pleasant and optimistic. It depicts the freedom during the childhood through perfect objects. The layout  of the design conveys a radiant energy to the viewers.



The negative space is wonderfully utilized in this illustration. The cuteness and the love tenderly reflects throughout the illustration.



The poster for a group exhibition of artworks by women artists is energetic with contrasting, complimentary colours throughout. The layout is different than usual.



The package design is unique as compared to the other packages for similar products in the markets. This design manifests black colour as a background, opposite to the trends. It experiments successfully with pairing of limited colour palette and food photography.



The minimalistic style with simple sans serif fonts, food photography and limited colour palette is attractive throughout the layout.



The food photography of spices arranged strategically together is vibrant and stimulates the appetite.



The vintage style or retro style reflects throughout this design of a poster. The colour choice and pairing of serif and sans serif fonts is wonderfully balanced along with the illustration.



The innovativeness and intelligence reflects throughout this poster. The visuals are interesting to catch the attention as the viewers explore the overall design and find many different objects that comprise the illustration representing the art of design.


The poster design is catchy, vibrant and full of illustration. The red colour denotes the colour of the planet Mars. The contrast of colours is visually appealing.



The typographic artwork using three colours [red, blue, yellow] on black background of this ad of a chocolate is wonderful piece of graphic design.



The book cover design with partial photograph of a clock and its hands represents the time span or history or past. The Serif font for title of the book and sans serif font for author’s name is perfectly paired, making it easy to read. The limited colour palette makes it visually appealing.



The abstract patterns on the pots provide a perfect and rare contrast to the brown background. The strategic positioning of the pots makes it visually attractive enough.



The wonderful, retro-styled unique poster for an orange-flavoured cold-drink, comprises of a stark contrast of mainly orange-coloured objects on a pale blue background. The main objects are centred, three dimensional in appearance and the warm colours paired with deep blue and green creates energetic appearance overall.



Part 3 Research Point [Level 1, Unit 1]

As I’m a self studied artist & designer so far for most of the part of learning, I have been observing keenly, studying & learning from the graphics created by many artists & designers who have been working through various mediums of creating graphics.

For this research of regarding the utilization of visual language in graphics, I’m presenting some of the graphics of selected artists whose work influences me, as follows :

(1) Official CorelDRAW Master Artist Joseph (Joe) Diaz –


Artist & Designer Joe Diaz from Pontiac [Illinois, USA] has been a grand prize winner as well as 1st prize winner in ‘CorelDRAW International Design Contest. Carrying forward the legacy of parents & working along with his brother, his work reflects his profound experience through his artwork which ranges from logos, identity design, murals, vehicle wraps, sign boards, package design, typography, portraits (fantasy & sci-fi characters) etc. His work is varied in styles like vintage, retro, modern and utilizes negative space. His typographic skills are amazing. He creates artwork using software CorelDRAW.


























































(2) Junissa Bianda Hardianto –


Junissa, studied in San Fransisco [USA] and being originally from Indonesia, is an illustrator working for children’s books.  Having a passion for art since childhood, she earned her bachelor’s degree in graphic design & children’s illustration as graduate degree. Her works are attractive, vivid, colourful and cute, that they also find fans in the adults. The key of success of her illustrations is the simplicity of the appearance of the illustrations. She wishes to turn the tech-savvy kids turn to avid reading with her illustrations in the books & also to make the kids aware of Indonesian folktales. Among the huge number of illustrators for children’s books, her work is noteworthy and outstanding.




























(3) Ian Barnard –

Ian Barnard is a hand-lettering artist, a calligrapher and a typography artist. He creates artworks of calligraphy, typography, fonts & other resources required by designers across the world. He believes that creating with hands keeps the creativity alive in the artist. He creates artworks every week. He sells his artwork by print and online. He crates add-ons for Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator as well as Procreate.











































(4) Andreas Preis –

Andreas Preis, born in Bavarian Forest area (South Germany) in 1984, is a graduate from Georg-Simon-Ohm University, He has studied communication design. He loves colour and drawing since childhood. Andreas is a designer, illustrator, artist currently working in Berlin (Germany). He is skilled in illustration, murals, tape art, live painting, as well as different fields of communication design (typography, logo design, icon design, art direction). In just few years, his clientele has expanded vastly and includes variety of brands like Adidas, Adobe, Atomic, Coke, Coors, DC Comics, ESPN, Ford, MINI, Microsoft, NAF NAF, Telekom, Nike, O2, Samsung, Vans, Wacom Warsteiner, etc. He widely uses iPad and Adobe apps fr creating illustratins. His rendering of illustrations reflects a unique style.

























































Part 2 Research Point [Level 1, Unit 1]

I have been working as a freelance graphic designer and artist since 2011, Previously , I have completed B.A. {English, History] from Mumbai University in 2006 & later, Diploma in DTP (DeskTop Publishing) by correspondence in 2009 as well as learned graphic design by self-study from 2001. I use following softwares :

Vector Graphics / Illustration : I have used CorelDRAW 7, 8, 11, 13 (X3), 14 (X4), 15 (X5), 16 (X6), 17 (X7) & currently 18 (X8) for vector graphics & illustration. My graphics won 5th prize & 4th prize in ‘Corel Asia Pacific Digital Art Contest’ in 2010 & 2011-12, 3rd prize in ‘CorelDRAW International Design Contest’ in 2011 (all competitions & contests were held by Corel Corporation (Canada) & Corel Asia-Pacific (Taiwan). The prizes included free versions of CorelDRAW X5, Corel Painter 4 & Corel Painter 12, Corel WordPerfect Office Suite, etc. CorelDRAW Graphics Suite has been my all-time favourite software which is extremely flexible & innovative.

I’m learning Adobe Illustrator too. I also use Android app versions of Adobe, for example Adobe Draw.

My prize softwares :

certificatecorel certificateDSC_0082DSC09318


Image Editing & Manupulation : I use Corel PHOTOPAINT (which is a part of CorelDRAW Graphics Suite), Corel PaintShop Pro & Adobe Photoshop.

DeskTop Publishing : I previously used Microsoft Office Suite. But, now I use the Corel WordPerfect Office Suite, a perfect alternative to it, won in the prize. It has softwares like Corel Presentations (an alternative to Microsoft PowerPoint), Corel WordPerfect (an alternative to Microsoft Word), etc.