Part 4 Exercise : Playing with the words [Level 1, Unit 1]

For this exercise, following list of words is given :

  1. Sad
  2. Safe
  3. Sardonic [Meaning : grimly mocking /cynic]
  4. Saucy [Meaning : expressing in a bold, lively manner]
  5. Scholarly
  6. Serious
  7. Shadow
  8. Shattered
  9. Shy
  10. Short
  11. Silly
  12. Sinking
  13. Skimpy [Meaning : short / revealing]
  14. Sleek [Meaning : elegant / smooth / glossy]
  15. Smart
  16. Snowy
  17. Sodden [Meaning : soaked with / saturated / excessively drunk]
  18. Soothing
  19. Sordid [Meaning : dirty / involving immoral actions]
  20. Sophisticated
  21. Speed
  22. Squat [Meaning : crouch / illegally occupy]
  23. Squeeze
  24. Stiff
  25. Stodgy [Meaning : dull / uninspired]
  26. Stoned [Meaning : under the influence]
  27. Style
  28. Supine [Meaning : lying face upwards]
  29. Swagger [Meaning : confident / arrogant]
  30. Sweet

These words are to be set at 48pt size with Helvetica bold as font, then to be printed, cut and pasted on paper trying to capture their meanings visually and to letar, try it digitally using any graphic software.


I have put up all letters in a triangular arrangement rather than curved ‘Sad’, being unconventional, because when humans feel sad, they generally either become bit introverted or others come near the sad person to console / convince them, thus my arrangement of each letter this human tendency.

To be safe and secured, a framed life is chosen than breaking the comfort zone or out of the box ideas aren’t considered, hence the arrangement of ‘Safe’ is square shaped, similar to a frame.

To denote graveness, to create an impact of seriousness, without any fun-provoking arrangement, I have put up ‘Serious’ in a straight horizontal baseline.

To depict the cynicism or sharp mocking, I have placed all the letters of ‘Sardonic’ in a sharp, slanting manner.

 ‘Stiff’ is arranged vertically and tightly together to denote the hardness. 

‘Saucy’ is arranged in curved manner with remaining letters arranged bit superscript way between ‘S’ and ‘y’, to reflect the lively, bold manner. 

I have cut the word ‘Short’ to make it appear short and make it easy to realise the meaning by just glance. 

During some little children learn letters and words using blocks with alphabets written on them and by stacking them to create spellings. The word ‘Scholalrly’ reflects the gradual steps of education and wisdom gained by experience over the years and age as well as maturity.

The letter ‘H’ is hidden and peeping from behind the letters ‘S’ and ‘Y’ to depict ‘Shy’.

I have arranged the word ‘Speed’ in a way that the double ‘e’ act as wheels to denote the movement and speed. ‘P’ and ‘d’ are rotated in a way that they interlock. 

All the letters of ‘Squeeze’ are pasted together to express the sensation of being squeezed together, thus matching the visuals, meaning to the word itself while reading or even glancing.

The uniqueness can be visually depicted by writing the word ‘Smart’ as simply by rotating the letter ‘a’ bit upwards. 

The sweetness and round shape of most of the Indian delicacies is what came across my mind when I arranged the word ‘Sweet’.

The foolishness could be derived from the random arrangement of the letters of word ‘Silly’.

‘Supine’ means lying down with face upwards. 

The calmness, serenity and peaceful feeling could be seen by arranging the letters of the word ‘Soothing’ farther away from each other in an equidistant measurement.


To show how the influence / force works, I have arranged the letters of the word ‘Stoned’ as if they were thrown. 

‘Snow’ falls are generally shown visually as triangular in direction due to the gravitational force. 

Elite, high class appearance is represented through the simple yet ‘Sophisticated’ arrangement. 

‘Skimpy’ is used to describe the short, revealing outfits and wearables, costumes. So, I have cut the letters in similar ways while arranging them. 

Going downwards is reflected visually so that the vision of the viewer travels through vertical arrangement of ‘Sinking’.

The pieces of the word show the meaning of ‘Shattered’.

The style of ambigram is used for arrangements of letters ‘S’, ‘p’, ‘d’, ‘u’, ‘n’, ‘e’


The different appearance of the word reflects through the word ‘Style’.

The crouching is seen through the ‘Squat’.

The illegal acts like heinous crimes of killing can be visually represented by placing ‘i’ horizontally as if a dead body in the arrangement of the word ‘Sordid’.

The arrogant, confident behaviour is reflected throughout the pattern created by the arrangement of the letters of the word ‘Swagger’.

The dull / uninspired appearance is denoted through the placing of the letters of ‘Stodgy’.

The elegant, smooth or glossy is visually appealing and hence, the arrangement of the word ‘Sleek’ is.

For digital versions of the same 30 words, I have used vector software CorelDRAW –

Playing with the words 2 [P4, L1, U1]

Playing with the words 3 [P4, L1, U1]


Part 4 Research [Level 1, Unit 1]

I have been interested in learning typography and also I wish to learn to create fonts. I came to know about many designers, typographers, calligraphers, etc. but noticed that there were many names of male designers, typographers or calligraphers and strangely there were very rarely or very few female names. This roused my curiosity about first female typographers and printers and their work in the past.

Hence, I thought to undertake a research and found some stunning and interesting information –

There was a period when there were prejudices about capabilities of women and were considered inferior. They weren’t given the due credits for their work, not even were acknowledged for their work. Some women preferred to work with nicknames sounding like male names or simply remained anonymous by intention or forcefully by other, due to such unfavourable conditions. So, sometimes it was bit tough to recognize whether the work was done by a women artist or not.

Women had fewer career opportunities and also had been exempted from getting good education and not even allowed to matriculate or graduate. Even the universities like Oxford didn’t allow women to even get admission till 1920. Even at Bauhaus art school in Germany, women were permitted to learn weaving or textile design but not other arts like graphic design or typography. Condition wasn’t much different throughout all the continents of the world. The issue of treating women artists, designers, typographers, etc. as inferior was universal, almost in all religions and classes, with very rare exceptions.

Prior to the invention of printing process in 15th century, women were involved in the process of production of manuscripts as well as some women worked as scribes, copyists for imitating handwritten documents, arts and music while some women served as patrons and supporters. Wives of craftsmen and nuns were allowed to assist or work in printing firms to typeset or aid the guilds of artists, typesetters, publishers, etc.

For example :

  1. Dominican nuns were printing books during the period between 1476 to 1484.
  2. There is a logbook by a convent press belonging to 8th century  which contains the record of female compositor, nun who had typeset a folio edition of a literary work by an Italian poet.
  3. Estellina Conat (wife of a physician and printer Abraham Conat) was involved in the process of typesetting of a Hebrew book, a small octavo edition of ‘Behinat Olam’. It has a colophon (a publisher’s emblem / imprint usually on the title page of the book, containing the brief information) which mentions Estellina’s contribution.

Anna Rugerin :

Anna’s mother Barbara Traut Schonsperger had remarried to Johann Bamler, a printer Augsburg, thus marking the beginning of an extensive engagement of family in the book-printing business.

After the death of her husband Thomas Ruger, Anna took full control of her print shop as an owner and operator, by having a business-oriented family history. The first woman to add her name in a colophon as a printer in a printed book was Anna Rugerin. She had published two folio editions of ‘Sachsenspiegel Landrecht’ by Eike Von Repgow in summer, June 1984 at Augsburg [Southern Germany]. She was assisted by her brother Johann Schonsperger.

Colophon containing Anna Rugerin’s name (Image courtesy of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)

Anna Rugerin colophon

I had found the translation of the colophon as follows :

anna rugerin colophon translation

The opening page of ‘Formulae and Duetsch Rhetorica’ contains the mention of Anna Rugerin (Image courtesy of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) –


Anna Rugerin and Johann Schonsperger used gothic type [Type 1:120G] –


Later, in 16th century, situations started progressing and more than hundreds of women were becoming a part of printing and designing processes, including bookmakers, writers / scribes, editors, type-designers, typographers, printers, owners of printing-firms.


Part 5 Exercise Magazine Pages [Level Unit 1]

Brief : It is required to select a magazine, newspaper or a journal and to study atleast its four pages, for observing following –

  1. To find out the grids they have used and applied to the layout.
  2. To measure the size of the pages, the margins, the text columns, the number of columns, the gaps and gutters between the columns.
  3. To identify the fonts they have used.
  4. To find whether any similar font is available in one’s own collection.
  5. To study the use of photos or illustrations in the selected layout.
  6. To study the use of white space on the pages.

It is also asked to draw a two-page spread using the same grid as of the studied layout, indicate the text using Lorum Ipsum and indicate images by filling a picture box with a tint 10% tint or use a picture from the collection, Checkout whether the grid can be developed any further. Select a title and images and try variations in it by altering headline font or body font and images. It is required to study how these variations affect the appearance and feel of the layout as well as its effect on the readers. It is also necessary to study if the images reflect the need to design differently. It is also required to note down which ones work best altogether.

Research : I have been living in a small town, far away from city, where access to good printed magazines is not much possible. Especially, the magazines in English, are not easily available.

I have seen some examples of printed magazine layouts shared online like these and have marked out the margins, grids, etc. as much as possible –

Layout 1

The two-page spread of the magazine layout is arranged with a block of text arranged as a title on the top left, two well-balanced paragraph text blocks with a narrow gutter / gap between them and left paragraph is aligned with right while the left column is aligned to left of the respective grids. There is an image created by colourful photomontage / collage spread diagonally across the top right of left page, continuing through the top left of right page and upto bottom right of right page. The image placement creates an asymmetrical appearance of the overall layout.

Layout 2

The left page contains a title of the article created using bold and regular sans serif font placed dynamically in white colour on the black background that forms the part of the image on the right, catches attention immediately to the overall monotonous appearance. There is small paragraph on the left page hanging upon the two of the total three paragraph text blocks which are almost evenly placed on left page. There are two small paragraph text blocks arranged with enough gutter space making the text legible on the mid left of the right page. The Grid is used to place three images on the top of the right page in a significant way that the title on the left page and these three images on right page align well horizontally, making the appearance of overall layout unique one. The grid has helped to place and use the background image as a part of grid too by use of negative space throughout the design. The image of a car is used by text wrap on the bottom left of the left page.

Layout 3

At the beginning, focal point moves to the brightly coloured red block with white coloured text on it and moves to the title of the article which is arranged by using grids and is in bold sans serif with less thickness applied on the first line than the remaining two lines of the title. There is small paragraph text arranged below it and is placed using the grids that crosses horizontally through the left page. There is a drop cap at the beginning of the paragraph text blocks on the left page. The paragraphs are evenly spaced and legible as individual text blocks but the gutter space between both paragraph text blocks is less than considering the overall volume of the text. There is one large photograph with text block immediately placed below it and thee are four photographs placed next to it using grids but there is less gutter space between on all of them, thus, making the appearance of the layout as tightly aligned throughout. Can’t even understand the intention of the image going beyond the grid to reach the border of the page as that photograph could have been aligned by scaling to the edges of the other photographs and to the grid.

I have also studied a local tabloid’s layout –

The layout of the tablet is basically consistent and almost uniform. By use of grids, some of the elements and objects like name of the tabloid, name of the author, title of the article, page number date, are set up. Also there are text blocks with same width, arranged with same gutter space on each page though there are images / illustrations / photographs place using text wrap. The whole two-page spread (Width 54 cm x Height 34 cm) with gutter space is 0.5 cm and the width of text blocks is 6 cm each.


9_6_17 10_40 PM Office Lens

9_6_17 10_41 PM Office Lens

9_6_17 10_45 PM Office Lens

9_6_17 10_50 PM Office Lens

For a detailed study, I have selected a book named ‘Pencil Techniques’ by Artists Rahul Deshpande and Artist Gopal Nandurkar, with a magazine styled layout of pages –

The page size is 21.5 x 28 cm each. The grid alignment and arrangement is similar for some pages but not same throughout the book. So, I have worked out the grids and guidelines with purple marker on some of the pages and measured the width, height as well as the gaps and gutters created by the intersection of the grids on these selected pages. The book contains images and illustrations / sketches created using graphite pencil. I have created same layouts using same grids for each page in CorelDRAW as it is not just a vector software, but also used for page layout designing. It is easier to set up grids and guidelines in CorelDRAW and therefore, I have placed grid as 1 grid per centimetre horizontally and vertically by X Y axis. The font style is bold and slab serif.


Layout With Sizes –

Magazine page 1 with msizes

Layout with Margins, grids and guidelines –

Magazine page 1 with guidelines, grids and margins


Layout With Sizes –

Magazine page 2 with sizes

Layout with Margins, grids and guidelines –

Magazine page 2 with guidelines, grids and margins


Layout With Sizes –

Magazine page 3 with szes

Layout with Margins, grids and guidelines –

Magazine page 3 with guidelines, grids and margins


Layout With Sizes –

 Magazine page 4 with sizes

Layout with Margins, grids and guidelines –

Magazine page 4 with guidelines, grids and margins

After studying these all layouts, with pen on paper, I have brainstormed and sketched some layout ideas, as much as varying in different styles to compare which ones will look good as a two-spread magazine layout –

magazine layout 2

Magazine layout 1

I have compared them all and considered the layouts no. 3, 10 and 15 but finalized 15th to create the magazine two-page spread layout as follows, by keeping the grids and guidelines as well as the dimensions same for all three [Width 43 x Height 28 cm total dimension of each spread and margin of 1 cm for top, bottom and outer sides while for the inner margin, I have kept the distance as 1.5 cm each] –

(1)Final Magazine two page spread layout 1 with grids, guidelins and dimensions 1

Final Magazine two page spread layout 1 with grids, guidelins and dimensions

Final Magazine two page spread layout 1

I have used photograph for the background of the title written in a bold slab serif font called ‘Clarendon BT’ and ‘Arial (Bold)’ for body text, The drop cap has made the paragraph text appear professionally written. I have kept the illustrations on right page same on all the spreads. The rounded corners of those images make them appear amicable. Enough leading made the paragraphs legible. The gutter space of 1 cm horizontally and vertically between paragraphs and the illustrations maintains the tidy appearance of the overall layout. Thus, the readers will find it attractive and legible, without feeling bored or tired to read voluminous text.

(2)Final Magazine two page spread layout 2

Here, I have used a script font called ‘Dancing Script’ paired with the clipart of pencil, and ‘Arial (Bold)’ for body text along with a drop cap. The contrast provided by the script font paired with sans serif font The use of clipart of pencil facilitates the understanding of the reader visually to know what the article is about. The script font looks like handwritten, cursive, thus appearing reader-friendly and less formal.

(3)Final Magazine two page spread layout 3

I have manifested totally different approach for this design and made it appear very formal yet reflecting the highest quality of minimalism. I have used black background with white coloured text on it. I have used no clipart or image other than the illustration on right page of the spread. While using a bold slab serif form called ‘Bookman Old Style’ for the title with differently styled double underlines having different widths but same lengths. The use of serif font ‘Times New Roman’ for the body text pairs well the font of title and carries on the consistency of appearance throughout the design. The elegance and exquisiteness of the appearance of the layout overall is surely visually appealing for the readers.

Change in fonts, legibility, placement of the elements, use of limited colour palettes and illustrations / photographs, well-balanced paragraphs and text blocks, sufficient space of gutters and margins, can surely visually affect the readership.


Part 3 Photomontage [Level 1 Unit 1]

Brief : It is required to createa design or poster using photomontage on any theme related to political or social issue.

Photomontage is created by cutting up photographs, to create new meanings of the contrasting images through the juxtaposition and composition of the layout, using conventional darkroom photography techniques or by using photo-editing and manipulating softwares like Adobe Photoshop, Corel PHOTOPAINT, Corel PaintShop, etc.

Theme : I have taken up the theme of social issue of violence against women, as it is universal. Women belonging to any background, any culture, of any socio-economic status, any caste, creed, religion faces discrimination and harassment on domestic level or at workplace or even at social level, be they illiterate or literate. There is need to impose strict laws and the criminals should be dealt with a heavy hand by enforcement of law. Also, there is a need to create more and more widespread awareness among the people in developing and undeveloped countries against the crimes against women and to fight against the injustice meted out.

Concept : I have created rough concept for the poster of size A3 using pen and paper initially, which I’m going to develop in Adobe Photoshop. The background colour should be gradient of dark red to bright red, to symbolically represent the terrifying reality. There should be a message on the top right for the victims to fight against the violence and harassment and on the top left, there should be a strict warning or message to represent that the violence will not be tolerated anymore, to reflect the firm stance of women. There should be an image or use of an clip art or line than a photograph any certain women, for effectiveness and to symbolize the helplessness of the victim during the violence. The images of words written in bold type should be used arranged and directed in an aggressive way towards the symbolic representation of the victim. The arrows represent the direction of the overall photomontage through which the eyesight of the viewers will navigate.


I have thought and noted some keywords to help create the photomontage effective : red, orange, yellow, dark red, red, gradient, stop, victim, violence, message, recognize, report, warning, prevent, sexual, physical, verbal, abuse, harassment, scandal, acid attack, attack, thrashed, spanking, bullying, blackmailing, extortion, rape, gang-rape, molestation, stripping, lynching, stabbing, forceful, inappropriate touching, groping, forceful kissing, forced marriages, dowry, child bride, child marriage, female foetcide, domestic violence, trafficking, bold, stance.

Reference Images : I have collected some reference images online of the news articles in various newspapers and magazines throughout the world which contain the words enlisted in the keywords. Not all the images of such news or articles are related to the issue of violence against women but these images contain words which can serve the purpose of conveying the intention of the design.












molested, article text in newspaper


sexual assault, newspaper article text

























flames background



Final poster design (Size A3) :

Photomontage A3

Part 3 Exercise Abstract Cities [Level 1 Unit 1]

Brief : It is required to create a series of 10 abstract cover designs of A5 size (210 mm x 148 mm) with landscape orientation (for guidebooks of 10 cities throughout the world). There should be a balance the blocks of subordinate, dominant and accent colours. There is no limitation on use of colours. It is compulsory to include he name of the city in each concerned design. The names of the 10 cities for which the designs are to be created :

  1. Madrid (Spain)
  2. Malmo (Sweden)
  3. Managua (Nicaragua)
  4. Manchester (UK)
  5. Manhattan (USA)
  6. Marrakech (Morocco)
  7. Marseilles (France)
  8. Melbourne (Australia)
  9. Montreal (Canada)
  10. Mumbai (India)

Research : For the reference, I have collected  clip-arts, silhouettes, line arts, photographs, etc. of some famous tourist places of historical / cultural importance, monuments, forts, castles, buildings, skylines, places of worship that make these cities remarkable and famous.


I have also studied the colours of the flags of the countries in which these cities are situated, as these colours will help me to determine atleast one of the colours for cover designs each.

Madrid (Spain)


Malmo (Sweden)


Managua (Nicaragua)


Manchester (UK)


Manhattan (USA)


Marrakech (Morocco)


Marseilles (France)


Melbourne (Australia)


Montreal (Canada)


Mumbai (India)


Design Solution :

I have brainstormed the minimalistic concept as follows –


Font : I have used one common slab serif font named ‘Bookman Old Style’ throughout all the designs in the series.

Softwares : I have used Corel PHOTOPAINT, an image editing software for editing the collected clip-arts, silhouettes, line arts, photographs, etc. and CorelDRAW for creating vector silhouettes and line arts as well as for the creation of the layout.

*I have created 2 variants for cities Morocco and Marseilles, because I was able to visualize it 2 ways each, especially with Moroccan Blue colour.






Marrakech 1

Marrakech 2

Marseilles 1

Marseilles 2





Part 3 Exercise Understanding Colour [Level 1 Unit 1]

Johaness Itten, an artist, designer and educator, who studied how colours work, explored the dynamic relationship between the colours. Through his study, he has provided te designers an important lesson :

When picking a colour palette to work with, use bright colours but balance them against more subtle colours.

It is asked to draw the grids of favourite colours and non-favourite colours and to compare which looks better by placing them side by side.

understanding colour1 p3 L1 U1

By comparing my favourite and non-favourite or less favourite colours, I can say, it is actually relative to every person’s choice. It can differ from person to person.

Some of my favourite colours are bit pale, kind of tint and shades rather than pure, bright, vibrant hues of colours. I also like two stark contrasting colours, that is black and white.

Some of my non-favourite colours are bright, vibrant and pure hues, for example red and yellow. Other colours are shades [colours derived by mixing black/grey in pure hues] and are bit dull in appearance.

If matched and paired as well as combined together my favourite and non-favourite colours properly, they can make graphics, illustrations or paintings appear interesting and visually appealing.

It is also asked to experimenting by placing colours together as Johaness Itten did by trying two colours each to illustrate following ideas :

  1. Angry
  2. Brave
  3. Creative
  4. Dangerous
  5. Energetic
  6. Familiar
  7. Gregarious [fond of company / sociable]
  8. Hopeful
  9. Independent
  10. Jumpy [contemplative, anxious and uneasy]
  11. Kinetic
  12. Luxurious
  13. Masculine
  14. New
  15. Open
  16. Precious
  17. Quiet
  18. Reasonable
  19. Sociable
  20. Tasteful
  21. Unhappy
  22. Vital
  23. Wonderful
  24. Extra Special
  25. Youthful
  26. Zany [amusingly unconventional and idiosyncratic (peculiar)]

understanding colour2 p3 L1 U1

Part 3 Exercise Seeing The Light [Level 1 Unit 1]


Using only an image of a light bulb, the word ‘light bulb’ and a block of any colour, at east 20 different designs are to be created that explore visual dynamics, for example like this one given in the course work-book :


So, I have experimented to explore the visual dynamics by trying various compositions, using each element at different sizes, cropped photo if necessary, keeping the block of colour of any size, layered the elements, to create sense of space, depth and contrasts.

I have used CorelDRAW for this purpose and used colours black and white for text, font Arial bold, blue for the block of colour and downloaded the image of light bulb from the given source. I have placed 30 rectangles, (each rectangle of width 31 mm and height 44 mm) as a grid.

light bulb